In wildness is the preservation of the world by Henry David Thoreau.
Tweed Shire’s coastline was formed geologically over millions of years. It has an area of approximately 1,303 square kilometres, and is encircled by three mountain ranges – the McPherson Range in the north, the Tweed Range in the west and the Nightcap Range in the south.
The Pacific Ocean forms the eastern border of the Shire. The two dominating landscape features of the valley are Mount Warning (1,156m high) – named by Captain James Cook in 1770 – and the Tweed River which flows into the sea at Tweed Heads. Mount Warning is the remnant core of the (long extinct) Tweed Shire Volcano and is where the dawn sun first touches eastern Australia. The steep rim of the caldera surrounds Mount Warning at a radius of approximately 15 kilometres. The eastern side of the volcano’s rim has been broken by the Tweed River, whose tributaries have carved out the hills.
In more recent time the area has been shaped by human activity on the coastline’s basic natural environment. The coastline was formerly the exclusive home of the Bundjalung Aboriginal people, and remnant physical evidence of their activities is preserved. With European settlement, however, the coastline has been extensively sand mined over the past 60 years, which has permanently altered the beach profile.